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United States

Cindy Domingo Oral History Interview

Cindy Domingo

2008

Cindy Domingo Oral History Interview

Cindy Domingo

An interview with Cindy Domingo. Domingo was an important figure in the Katipunan ng mga Demokratikong Pilipino (KDP), a U.S.-based movement founded in opposition to the Marcos dictatorship. Domingo was the sister of Silme Domingo who, along with Gene Viernes, was assassinated on June 1, 1981. The Marcos government was eventually found to be responsible for the murders. Domingo became integral in the Committee for Justice for Domingo and Viernes.

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Interview with Cindy Domingo, The Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project.

United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures that made for Change

Gary Hawes

1986

United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures that made for Change

Gary Hawes

This article by U.S. Foreign Relations expert, Gary Hawkes, interrogates the so-called American dilemma. How and why to support Marcos in the midst of mounting economic and political pressures? Gawes looks at important issues such as military aid and bases, the economy and opposition to Marcos.

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Hawes, Gary. “United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures That Made for Change.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 8, no. 1 (1986): 18–36.

Martial Law in the Philippines: The Methods of Regime Survival

David Wurfel

1977

Martial Law in the Philippines: The Methods of Regime Survival

David Wurfel

This article by political scientist David Wurfel focuses on questions of legitimacy and acquiescence that led to the rise and fall of Marcos and his regime. It looks at the different dealings of Marcos with various sectors including the elite, the Catholic Church, the military, the peasantry, urban poor, among others. It also examines the role of the US in legitimizing martial law.

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Wurfel, David. “Martial Law in the Philippines: The Methods of Regime Survival.” Pacific Affairs 50, no. 1 (1977): 5–30.

Dark Legacy: Human Rights under the Marcos Regime

Alfred W. McCoy

2001

Dark Legacy: Human Rights under the Marcos Regime

Alfred W. McCoy

Alfred McCoy’s Dark Legacy discusses the extent of human rights violations committed by the Marcos regime and its primary agents of terror, the Philippine military. It is in this work that McCoy records, based on primary sources and data, the regime’s human rights violations to 3,257 extra-judicial killings, 35,000 tortured, and 70,000 incarcerated. Aside from analyzing the regime’s record of terror and its implementation of torture methods, the research traces how the Philippine military–as the chief implementors of martial rule–was shaped by the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) resources.

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McCoy, Alfred W. “Dark Legacy: Human Rights under the Marcos Regime.” In Memory, Truth Telling, and the Pursuit of Justice: A Conference on the Legacies of the Marcos Dictatorship, pp. 129-144. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2001. [With Permission from the Author]

Marcos and Beyond: The Philippine Revolution

John Lyons and Karl Wilson (eds.)

1987

Marcos and Beyond: The Philippine Revolution

John Lyons and Karl Wilson (eds.)

In this study, John Lyons and Karl Wilson revisit the dramatic events that led to the People Power Edsa ‘revolution.’ They particularly examined the role of the United States and their reactions to the events as they unfolded in the Philippines. From these events, they looked at the legacy of Marcos and his family as they left the Philippines.

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Lyons, John., Karl. Wilson, and Will. Burgess. Marcos and Beyond : the Philippines Revolution. Kenthurst: Kangaroo Press, 1987.

Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy

Richard Bonner

1987

Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy

Richard Bonner

Waltzing with a Dictator is a book by Raymond Bonner, an investigative reporter, who details the involvement of the United States government with the presidency of Ferdinand E. Marcos which lasted for more than two decades. Bonner also narrates how the Marcos dictatorship dealt with its political rivals, most especially Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino Jr. who was imprisoned and then assassinated. The author creates a detailed narrative of the events during the Marcos dictatorship using declassified documents from the United States government.

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Bonner, Richard. Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. New York, 1987.

The Marcos Dynasty

Sterling Seagrave

1988

The Marcos Dynasty

Sterling Seagrave

Sterling Seagrave, an investigative journalist and historian, provides a vivid narrative about the rise and fall of the so-called “Marcos dynasty.” Seagrave retells well-known narratives about the lavish living of the Marcos family during their heyday in Philippines politics. The author also inserts lesser-known stories which expose truths about the plunder committed by the Marcos regime. Furthermore, Seagrave underscores how the Marcos dictatorship was sustained by Ferdinand E. Marcos’ connections with the White House, the Pentagon, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Seagrave, Sterling. The Marcos Dynasty. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Philippines Information Bulletin

Various Authors

1973

Philippines Information Bulletin

Various Authors

The inaugural issue of the Philippines Information Bulletin. Started in 1973 by U.S.-based allies of the anti-Marcos movement, the Bulletin was in operation until 1976. The publication, which was eventually guided by the Friends of the Filipino People, kept people in the United States up to date on martial law developments in the Philippines as well as the role that the United States played in supporting the Marcos presidency.

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Philippines Information Bulletin 1, no. 1 (January 1973).

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Philippines

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

1985

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Philippines

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

This report was commissioned by the US Committee on Foreign Relations in 1985 as a supplementary document to their initial report entitled “The Situation in the Philippines.” It was based on a three-week field research conducted mostly in Negros Island and Mindanao. Through a series of interviews with government officials, military commanders, and civilians, this document provides a crucial assessment of the counterinsurgency campaign in the Philippines.

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U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Philippines. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.

The Situation in the Philippines [1984]

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

1984

The Situation in the Philippines [1984]

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

This comprehensive report was based on two visits of several members of the US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations between May and July of 1984 in order to assess the situation in the Philippines. Key observations were made particularly on the conduct of the elections for the National Assembly, the current political climate, the ongoing insurgency, and the assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr.

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U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Staff. The Situation in the Philippines. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984.