Results for

Martial Law

President Ferdinand Marcos Proclaims Martial Law (1972)

AP Archive

1972

President Ferdinand Marcos Proclaims Martial Law (1972)

AP Archive

In this historic broadcast, President Marcos explains that the “proclamation of Martial Law” is “not a military takeover” but was undertaken “to protect the Republic of the Philippines” and “our democracy.” This short clip then shows scenes of citizens and military alike participate in cleaning and maintaining order in the streets.

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“President Ferdinand Marcos proclaims Martial law,” Associated Press Archives, September 23, 1972.

Victory at Last? (1994)

Probe Archives

2022

Victory at Last? (1994)

Probe Archives

Eight years since the ouster of Marcos, the Probe looks into the entanglements of issues on jurisdiction regarding the punitive damages claimed by human rights victims during Martial Law.

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Probe Archives, “Victor at Last?” Vimeo, 15:12, May 6, 2022.

Habilin: The Little Light in Each of Us (Youtube Video)

Commission on Human Rights; WiseOwl PH (Republishing as compilation on Youtube)

2022

Habilin: The Little Light in Each of Us (Youtube Video)

Commission on Human Rights; WiseOwl PH (Republishing as compilation on Youtube)

Originally a set of 12 videos published with different artistic styles under the Commission on Human Rights, the “HABILIN” short video series focuses on the stories of 9 persons who lived under the martial law regime: Margarita Gomez, Sr. Mariani Dimaranan, Coronacion Chiva, Lazaro Silva, Marciano Anastacio Jr., Elma Tangente, Lumbaya Gayudan, Nestor Principe, at Armando Palabay. Each account narrates how they acted in their own ways to resist the regime and fight for freedom, democracy and justice. These acts culminate in the People Power Revolution – one which is reflected upon over a call to pass-on the legacies of these stories to the next generation of Filipinos.

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Compilation: “Habilin (English Subs).” (Youtube Video). Published by WiseOwl PH. 77 Feb 2022.

Manila street scenes under martial law (1972)

AP Archive

2015

Manila street scenes under martial law (1972)

AP Archive

This clip is marked “General street scenes in Manila during martial law.” At first glance, life in Quiapo and its environs seems deceptively normal five days after the declaration of PD 1081. If one observes more closely, however, burgeoning discontent is manifest. Walls are slathered with words like “Digmaang bayan – sagot sa martial law (People’s war – antidote to martial law)” and “Itaguyod ang kalayaang Pilipino (Stand for Filipino freedom),” painted in fiery red. A week before this clip was filmed, various organizations had gathered at nearby Plaza Miranda to protest the looming imposition of martial law.

The streets’ seeming peace reveals an undercurrent of repression when a police officer, armed with a rifle and a pair of scissors, starts snipping at the locks of a long-haired youth. “We were taught to fear the police and the military,” recalls historian Ambeth Ocampo. “They punished curfew violators and jaywalkers with exposure to the sun or doing an unreasonable number of pushups. In the early days of martial law they rounded up young men with long hair and shaved their heads.”

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AP Archive, “SYND 28-9-72 Martial Law,” YouTube Video, 0:55, July 22, 2015

Our Voices, Our Stories, Our Redemption (2015)

Commission on Human Rights. Published on Youtube by Mila D. Aguilar

2015

Our Voices, Our Stories, Our Redemption (2015)

Commission on Human Rights. Published on Youtube by Mila D. Aguilar

The documentary was produced as part of a Martial Law Oral History Project of the Philippines’ Commission on Human Rights and Human Rights Victims’ Claims Board (HRVCB) in cooperation with the Swiss Embassy. It features various accounts of survivors and victims’ relatives who faced cases of human rights violations, including torture, arbitrary arrests and the killing or enforced disappearances of loved ones under the dictatorship. The video copy available online was republished by the late Mila D. Aguilar.

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Commission on Human Rights (2015). “Our Voices, Our Stories, Our Redemption.” Youtube video, 37:26, 14 June 2015.

Young Voters Meeting Martial Law Survivors (CARMMA Video)

Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law

2016

Young Voters Meeting Martial Law Survivors (CARMMA Video)

Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law

On May 2016, the group “Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law” (CARMMA) published a short video on social media days before voting commenced. Various students and young voters are shown meeting face-to-face with victims of detention and torture under the government of Ferdinand Marcos Sr., the father of then Vice Presidential Candidate Ferdinand Marcos Jr. Noting that the full education of the regime has been lacking in schools, the video ends with a call for a petition to the Department of Education to bolster textbook content on the period.

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Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law (CARMMA). 2016. “These young voters are in for a surprise.” Facebook, May 3, 2016.

Martial Law: declared on Sept. 23, 1972 – not Sept. 21 (CARMMA Video)

Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law

2016

Martial Law: declared on Sept. 23, 1972 – not Sept. 21 (CARMMA Video)

Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law

“Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law” (CARMMA) published a 3 and a half minute video for facebook which begins by showing the television broadcast for Proclamation 1081 taking place at 7pm, September 23. It proceeds to show brief excerpts of various survivors of the regime detailing their experiences during the period. The survivors give parting advice to the audience – and the video ends with a petition call towards the Department of Education to integrate the teaching of the Martial Law Period more concisely in textbooks.

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Campaign Against the Return of the Marcoses and Martial Law (CARMMA). 2016. “Martial Law: declared on Sept. 23, 1972 – not Sept. 21.” Facebook, September 23, 2016.

The Jupiter Effect

Katrina Tuvera

2006

The Jupiter Effect

Katrina Tuvera

Based in the Philippines, Katrina Tuvera has authored a collection of short fiction, Testament and Other Stories (Anvil, 2002), and a novel set in the Philippines during the martial law years, The Jupiter Effect (Anvil, 2006), which both received the National Book Award by the Manila Critics Circle. This novel is the story of Kiko and Gaby, two martial-law babies who underwent political initiation during the Marcos years. The novel poses questions about the Filipinos’ complicity in the Marcos dictatorship and portrays many compromises that are still present in the current Philippine politics.

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Tuvera, Katrina. The Jupiter Effect. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing, 2006.

Bamboo in the Wind

Azucena Grajo Uranza

1990

Bamboo in the Wind

Azucena Grajo Uranza

Azucena Grajo Uranza was a Filipino novelist, short story writer, and playwright. Her novel, Bamboo in the Wind, is set during the Martial law period.

Larry Esteva, coming home from studies in Boston, witnesses at the airport a riotous demonstration that is forcibly dispersed by the military. The end of his journey turns out to be the beginning of an odyssey in his beloved city where he finds “an insidious lawlessness creeping upon the land.”

Set in Manila in the last beleaguered months before the politico-military takeover in 1972, Bamboo in the Wind tells of the last desperate efforts of a people fighting to stave off disaster. Amid the escalating madness of a regime gone berserk, an odd assortment of people—a senator, a young nationalist, a dispossessed farmer, a radical activist, a convent school girl, a Jesuit scholastic—make their way along the labyrinthine corridors of greed and power. Each is forced to examine his own commitment in the face of brutality and evil, as the book conjures up scene after scene of devastation: the massacre of the demonstrators, the demolition of Sapang Bato, the murder of the sugar plantation workers, the burning of the Laguardia rice fields. And, as a climax to the mounting violence, that final September day—the arrests, the torture, and finally, the darkness that overtakes the land.[Wikipedia]

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Uranza, Azucena Grajo. Bamboo in the Wind. Vera-Reyes, Inc., 1990.

Dogeaters

Jessica Hagedorn

1990

Dogeaters

Jessica Hagedorn

Based in the US, Jessica Hagedorn is a multi-awarded Filipino-American playwright, writer, poet, and multimedia performance artist.

Dogeaters is one of her most famous novels published in 1990 which was also adapted into a play by the same name. Dogeaters, set in the late 1950s in Manila (the capital of the Philippines), addresses several social, political and cultural issues present in the Philippines during the 1950s. The destinies of a varied group of characters–movie stars, department store clerks, the wealthiest man in the Philippines–are intertwined with a beauty pageant, a film festival, and an assassination, in an incisive study of the Philippines under Marcos.

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Hagedorn, Jessica Dogeaters. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990.

Protests versus martial law extension (1976)

AP Archive

2015

Protests versus martial law extension (1976)

AP Archive

In this clip, we see a mass demonstration held on October 11, 1976, starting at the De La Salle University campus in Manila and marching towards Plaza Miranda in Quiapo. It was staged to protest the national referendum-plebiscite slated on October 16. According to a Daily Express report, “it was the first public meeting held by more than 5,000 students, workers, and religious leaders at the historic Plaza Miranda since martial law was declared four years ago, according to the police. The gathering was also the first congregation since Comelec allowed liberal ventilation and criticism on the referendum.”

Protesters are seen singing “Bayan Ko” while holding banners and placards that say “Down with Martial Law, Fight for Democracy,” “Bokyotin ang (Boycott the) Referendum,” and “Marcos Hitler Diktador Tuta (Dictator, Lapdog),” among others. The rally is blocked by policemen and barangay officials. A police officer addresses protesters via megaphone, saying that only debates are allowed, and the permit “does not include the marching or holding demonstrations along the streets of the city.” The clip ends with the state forces violently dispersing protesters that evening, their truncheons indiscriminately wielded against men and women, young and old.

At the time, every year since the declaration of martial law in 1972, a referendum has been held by the government to affirm the leadership of President Ferdinand Marcos, with the results always overwhelmingly positive. In 1976, the two referendum questions were:

“1. Do you want martial law to be continued?
2. Whether or not you want martial law to be continued, do you approve of the following amendments to the Constitution? For the purpose of the second question, the referendum shall have the effect of a plebiscite within the contemplation of Section 2 of Article XVI of the Constitution.”

According to the text of PD 1033, the proposed amendments include the creation of an interim Batasang Pambansa in lieu of Congress, that the President shall be Prime Minister, that “he shall continue to exercise all his powers even after the interim Batasang Pambansa is organized and ready to discharge its functions” and until the lifting of martial law.

The proposed amendments give extraordinary powers to the President, as seen in the following:

“6. Whenever in the judgment of the President (Prime Minister), there exists a grave emergency or a threat or imminence thereof, or whenever the interim Batasang Pambansa of the regular National Assembly fails or is unable to act adequately on any matter for any reason that in his judgment requires immediate action, he may, in order to meet the exigency, issue the necessary decrees, orders or letters of instructions, which shall form part of the law of the land.
7. The barangays and sanggunians shall continue as presently constituted but their functions, powers, and composition may be altered by law.”

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AP Archive, “SYND 11 10 76 Rioting in Manila Over 4 Years of Martial Law,” YouTube video, 3:16, July 24, 2015

The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos

William H. Overholt

1986

The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos

William H. Overholt

In this article written soon after the People Power revolt, political economist William Overholt comprehensively analyzes the conditions that led to rise of Marcos, Martial Law and the eventual decline of his regime, focusing primarily on economic reforms and its effects on political stability.

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Overholt, William H. “The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos.” Asian Survey 26, no. 11 (1986): 1137–63. https://doi.org/10.2307/2644313.