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General Orders

General Order No. 5

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 5

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Upon the declaration of Martial Law, and with the rationale to “restore the tranquility and stability of the nation in the quickest possible manner,” President Marcos signed General Order No. 5, effectively banning “all rallies, demonstrations and other forms of group actions.” Furthermore, strikes and picketing by workers of companies engaged in the production of essential commodities, as well as those in hospitals, schools and colleges, are strictly prohibited. This declaration also stated that any person violating this order shall be arrested and taken into custody and held for the duration of the “national emergency .”

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 5,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

General Order No. 4

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 4

Ferdinand E. Marcos

In accordance with his declaration of Martial Law, President Marcos signed General Order No. 4, imposing nightly curfew for all Filipinos from 12am to 4am with the justification of preventing “wanton destruction of lives and property, widespread lawlessness and anarchy, and chaos and disorder.” People who are found outside their homes after curfew will be summarily arrested with possible detention in military camps. This curfew would not be lifted until August 1977, almost five years later.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 4,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

General Order No. 3

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 3

Ferdinand E. Marcos

With the declaration of Martial Law, President Marcos signed several General (Executive) Orders immediately, including General Order No. 3, where he orders that “all executive departments, bureaus, offices, agencies and instrumentalities of the National Government…shall continue to function under their present officers and employees.” The same goes to the Judiciary which he stated “shall continue to function in accordance with its present organization and personnel,” except in adjudicating the cases of those deemed dangerous by the state. Like other general orders, this one cements and expands the uncontested powers of the President.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 3,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

General Order No. 2-A

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 2-A

Ferdinand E. Marcos

With Proclamation 1081, President Marcos effectively placed the country under Martial Law and immediately after he signed several General Orders that elaborated on and expanded his powers. With General Order No. 2-A (which amended General Order No. 2), President Marcos, as Commander-in-Chief, orders the Secretary of National Defense to arrest and take into custody the individuals who were seen as threats to the state. The order itself lists these types of people. This effectively gave the President and the military unlimited power to arrest people without due process.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 2-A,” Government of the Philippines, September 26, 1972. [Amending General Order No. 2 signed on September 22, 1972.]

General Order No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

With Proclamation 1081, President Marcos effectively placed the country under Martial Law and immediately after, he signed several General Orders that elaborated on and expanded his powers. General Order No. 1 cemented his authoritarian powers, as he declared: “I shall govern the nation and, direct the operation of the entire Government, including all its agencies and instrumentalities, in my capacity and shall exercise all the powers and prerogatives appurtenant and incident to my position as such Commander-in-Chief of all the armed forces of the Philippines.”

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 1,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.