Results for

Authoritarianism

The Marcos Years: The Age of Crisis and Repression

Ferdinand C. Llanes (ed.)

2023

The Marcos Years: The Age of Crisis and Repression

Ferdinand C. Llanes (ed.)

The Marcos Years: The Age of Crisis and Repression is a collection of essays organized in two parts: (1) an examination into the full weight of Martial Law on politics and society and (2) an analysis of the economic crisis which the dictatorship period produced. The first part probes into the nature of authoritarianism, the traits of the bureaucracy under Martial Law, and the experiences of those who resisted, particularly journalists and activists. The second part studies the different programs and policies of Ferdinand E. Marcos that brought the Philippine economy to its dire state in the 1980s.

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Llanes, Ferdinand C. (ed.). The Marcos Years: The Age of Crisis and Repression. N.p.: Sandigan para sa Mag-aaral at Sambayanan (SAMASA), 2023.

The Marcos Era: A Reader

Leia Castañeda Anastacio and Patricio N. Abinales (eds.)

2022

The Marcos Era: A Reader

Leia Castañeda Anastacio and Patricio N. Abinales (eds.)

The Marcos Era: A Reader is an appraisal of various aspects of Ferdinand E. Marcos’ regime–its key personalities, policies, and programs. Written by historians, political scientists, social scientists, economists, lawyers, journalists, and other members of the civil society, the Martial Law reader aims to contribute to ongoing academic conversation about the Marcos regime that lasted for more than two decades and shaped Philippine contemporary history.

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Anastacio, Leia Castañeda and Patricio N. Abinales (eds.). The Marcos Era: A Reader. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2022.

Edifice Complex: Power, Myth and Marcos State Architecture

Gerard Lico

2003

Edifice Complex: Power, Myth and Marcos State Architecture

Gerard Lico

Gerard Lico provides an analysis of power and architectural commentary/criticism of the massive infrastructure projects of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, particularly the Cultural Center of the Philippines complex. Lico delves into the idea that architectural projects were used by the Marcos dictatorship in order to legitimize authoritarianism and maintain social control. By looking at Marcosian architecture, the author interrogates Marcos’ idea of the New Society through his ambitious projects that attempt to propel an illusion of “progress” under the context of the dictatorship.

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Lico, Gerard. Edifice Complex: Power, Myth and Marcos State Architecture. Ateneo University Press, 2003.

Dead Aim: How Marcos Ambushed Philippine Democracy

Conrado De Quiros

1997

Dead Aim: How Marcos Ambushed Philippine Democracy

Conrado De Quiros

A collection of insightful essays by one of the leading journalists of the Philippines, most of which appeared in the Philippine Daily Inquirer which show the various means by which Ferdinand Marcos, Sr. ambushed Philippine democracy to dominate Philippine politics.

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De Quiros, Conrado. Dead Aim: How Marcos Ambushed Philippine Democracy. Foundation for Worldwide People’s Power, 1997.

The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos

Primitivo Mijares

2017

The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos

Primitivo Mijares

Conjugal Dictatorship is a book by Primitivo Mijares who, before his defection from the Marcos government in 1975, was the dictator’s chief propagandist as chairman of the Government’s Media Advisory Council. Hence, the book provides a firsthand account of the Marcos regime’s excesses, its lies and its machinations to consolidate power. Conjugal Dictatorship is a classic work that takes its readers back to the dark years of authoritarianism where graft and corruption ran rampant and human rights violations were committed with impunity. Mijares disappeared one year after publishing the first edition of this book, last seen boarding a flight from Guam to the Philippines with General Fabian Ver. His son Boyet was kidnapped and murdered a few months later. The Ateneo de Manila University Press republished the manuscript in its current edition in 2017.

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Mijares, Primitivo. The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2017.

The Marcos Rule and its Dynamics of Political Control

Carmencita T. Aguilar

1988

The Marcos Rule and its Dynamics of Political Control

Carmencita T. Aguilar

This paper examines how President Marcos was able to assert authoritarian rule by his ingenious subversion of the Philippine Constitution. It looks at how individual rights protected by the Constitution were subverted by Marcos’s manipulation of authority with support from institutions such as the business and military sectors.

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Aguilar, Carmencita T. “The Marcos Rule and its Dynamics of Political Control.” Indian Journal of Asian Affairs 1, no. 2 (1988): 43–57.

In the Name of Civil Society: From Free Election Movements to People

Eva-Lotta Hedman

2005

In the Name of Civil Society: From Free Election Movements to People

Eva-Lotta Hedman

Based on extensive research spanning the course of a decade (1991-2001), this study offers a powerful analysis of Philippine politics and society inspired by the writings of Antonio Gramsci. It draws on a rich collection of sources from archives, interviews, newspapers, and participant-observation. It identifies a cycle of recurring “crisis of authority,” involving mounting threats – from above and below – to oligarchical democracy in the Philippines. Tracing the trajectory of a Gramscian “dominant bloc” of social forces, Hedman shows how each such crisis in the Philippines promotes a countermobilization by the “intellectuals” of the dominant bloc: the capitalist class, the Catholic Church, and the U.S. government.

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Hedman, Eva-Lotta E. In the Name of Civil Society: From Free Election Movements to People. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 2005.

Letter of Instruction No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

Letter of Instruction No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Along with Proclamation 1081, President Marcos, signed “Letter of Instruction No. 1″ addressed to the Press Secretary and the Secretary of National Defense, pertaining to media operations. Effectively, the President instructed these bodies, stating…”you are hereby ordered forthwith to take over and control or cause the taking over and control of all such newspapers, magazines, radio and television facilities and all other media of communications, wherever they are, for the duration of the present national emergency, or until otherwise ordered by me or my duly designated representative.”

After declaring Martial Law, the very first letter of instruction President Marcos signed institutionalized censorship of all forms of media, curtailing the freedom of the press.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “Letter of Instruction No. 1,” Official Gazette, Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

The Radio-TV Address of President Marcos

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

The Radio-TV Address of President Marcos

Ferdinand E. Marcos

On September 23, 1972, two days after he signed Proclamation 1081 imposing Martial Law on the entire country, President Marcos addressed the people of the Philippines on radio and television. On this Radio-TV address, he provided the rationale of military rule as “public safety requires it” and as the nation was “imperilled by the danger of violent overthrow, an insurrection or a rebellion.” In his address, he emphasized that “this is not a military takeover,” and yet, he orders the military to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, prohibit any rallies or demonstrations, and to arrest those “directly involved in the conspiracy to overthrow” the government. Curfew was imposed from 12am to 4am the departure of Filipinos to go abroad was suspended. Furthermore, President Marcos declared that “If you offend the New Society, you shall be punished like the rest of the offenders,” and yet reassured the Filipinos expressing, “but to the ordinary citizens, to almost all of you whose primary concern is merely to be left alone to pursue your lawful activities, this is the guarantee of that freedom that you seek.” This address did not provide much reassurance but was foreboding of the bad things to come.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E. Radio-TV Address of his Excellency Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines, Delivered in Malacanang, September 23, 1972.
Marcos, F. E. (1978). Presidential speeches (Vol. 4). [Manila : Office of the President of the Philippines].

What Lawyers Should Know in Order to Defend Political Prisoners

Free Legal Assistance Group (FLAG)

1979

What Lawyers Should Know in Order to Defend Political Prisoners

Free Legal Assistance Group (FLAG)

A 1979 document from FLAG (Free Legal Assistance Group) that outlined various legal cases and laws that could be used by lawyers to help defend the rights of those that were arrested by the Marcos regime.

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Free Legal Assistance Group. “What Lawyers Should Know in Order to Defend Political Prisoners,” 1979.

General Order No. 6

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 6

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Upon the declaration of Martial Law, and with the rationale to stop “terroristic activities, assassination of innocent citizens and leaders” by “radical and lawless elements,” President Marcos signed General Order No. 6 that prohibits any person to “keep, possess or carry outside of his residence any firearm unless authorized.” Any person violating this order shall forthwith be arrested and taken into custody.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 6,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

General Order No. 5

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 5

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Upon the declaration of Martial Law, and with the rationale to “restore the tranquility and stability of the nation in the quickest possible manner,” President Marcos signed General Order No. 5, effectively banning “all rallies, demonstrations and other forms of group actions.” Furthermore, strikes and picketing by workers of companies engaged in the production of essential commodities, as well as those in hospitals, schools and colleges, are strictly prohibited. This declaration also stated that any person violating this order shall be arrested and taken into custody and held for the duration of the “national emergency .”

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 5,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.