Secondary Resources

Secondary Resources

Secondary sources are books and materials that offer analysis and synthesis of historical events, often through the interpretation of primary sources. Secondary sources are usually products of research using a variety of sources by scholars and researchers, and in particular, by those who have published about the Martial Law period, its significance and legacy in the Philippines.

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Secondary Sources
Secondary Sources

The State in Development Theory: The Philippines Under Marcos

M. D. Litonjua

2001

The State in Development Theory: The Philippines Under Marcos

M. D. Litonjua

This article uses a comparative institutional approach to study the role of the state in the Philippines under Marcos. It looks at the different states in Philippine history and how it compares to the state model of Martial law in order to understand the prospects of democracy and development in the country.

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Litonjua, M. D. “The State in Development Theory: The Philippines Under Marcos.” Philippine Studies 49, no. 3 (2001): 368–98.

The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos

William H. Overholt

1986

The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos

William H. Overholt

In this article written soon after the People Power revolt, political economist William Overholt comprehensively analyzes the conditions that led to rise of Marcos, Martial Law and the eventual decline of his regime, focusing primarily on economic reforms and its effects on political stability.

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Overholt, William H. “The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos.” Asian Survey 26, no. 11 (1986): 1137–63. https://doi.org/10.2307/2644313.

Marcos and the Americans

Richard J. Kessler

1986

Marcos and the Americans

Richard J. Kessler

This article examines various U.S. policies and administrations with regards to President Marcos and his regime. It interrogates whether these administrations were misguided and have contributed substantially to the economic and political problems in the Philippines.

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Kessler, Richard J. “Marcos and the Americans.” Foreign Policy, no. 63 (1986): 40–57. https://doi.org/10.2307/1148755.

United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures that made for Change

Gary Hawes

1986

United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures that made for Change

Gary Hawes

This article by U.S. Foreign Relations expert, Gary Hawkes, interrogates the so-called American dilemma. How and why to support Marcos in the midst of mounting economic and political pressures? Gawes looks at important issues such as military aid and bases, the economy and opposition to Marcos.

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Hawes, Gary. “United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures That Made for Change.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 8, no. 1 (1986): 18–36.

Narrating the Dictator(ship): Social Memory, Marcos, and Ilokano Literature after the 1986 Revolution

Roderick Galam

2008

Narrating the Dictator(ship): Social Memory, Marcos, and Ilokano Literature after the 1986 Revolution

Roderick Galam

This article inquires into the social memory of Ferdinand Marcos and of his dictatorship in the literature written in the language of his home region, Ilocos, in the period since his downfall during the 1986 People Power Revolution. The novels Saksi ti Kaunggan (1986-1987) by Juan S. P. Hidalgo Jr. and Dagiti Bin-i ti Kimat (1995) by Clesencio B. Rambaud are used as indicators of changing narrative social memories of Marcos in Ilokano literature. Hidalgo’s novel exemplifies the Ilokano writers’ ‘loyalist’ memory of Marcos, whereas Rambaud’s novel indexes attempts to reassess Marcos and the legacies of his dictatorship. This article seeks to contribute to the literature on the social memory of Marcos’s military regime; looks into the braiding of literature, memory, and the nation; and examines the constitution of memory in gender.–Galam

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Galam, Roderick, Narrating the Dictator(ship): Social Memory, Marcos, and Ilokano Literature after the 1986 Revolution, Philippine Studies vol. 56, no. 2 (2008): 151–182.

Martial Law in the Philippines: The Methods of Regime Survival

David Wurfel

1977

Martial Law in the Philippines: The Methods of Regime Survival

David Wurfel

This article by political scientist David Wurfel focuses on questions of legitimacy and acquiescence that led to the rise and fall of Marcos and his regime. It looks at the different dealings of Marcos with various sectors including the elite, the Catholic Church, the military, the peasantry, urban poor, among others. It also examines the role of the US in legitimizing martial law.

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Wurfel, David. “Martial Law in the Philippines: The Methods of Regime Survival.” Pacific Affairs 50, no. 1 (1977): 5–30.

Producing Ferdinand E. Marcos, the Scholarly Author

Miguel Paolo P. Reyes

2018

Producing Ferdinand E. Marcos, the Scholarly Author

Miguel Paolo P. Reyes

Miguel Paolo Reyes’ article is an interesting study with compelling evidence proving that President Ferdinand E. Marcos’ books were not only ghost-written for him but also contained traces of self-plagiarism (e.g. content republished from previous works). Reyes also discusses how the Marcos books were widely distributed during its time and how, up to the present-day, these materials continue to fulfill the goals of the Marcosian propaganda machine.

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Reyes, Miguel Paolo P. “Producing Ferdinand E. Marcos, the Scholarly Author.” Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints 66, no. 2 (2018): 173-218. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/697640

The Myths of the New Filipino: Philippine Government Propaganda During the Early Years of Martial Law

Joseph P. McCallus

1989

The Myths of the New Filipino: Philippine Government Propaganda During the Early Years of Martial Law

Joseph P. McCallus

This article examines the propaganda efforts of the Philippine government during the first years of Martial Law, including issues of myth-making and what it means to be Filipino.

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McCallus, Joseph P. “The Myths of the Filipino: Philippine Government Propaganda During the Early Years of Martial Law,” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 17, no. 2 (1989): 129–48.

Philippine Indigenous People’s Struggles for Land and Life: Challenging Legal Texts

Jose Mencio Molintas

2004

Philippine Indigenous People’s Struggles for Land and Life: Challenging Legal Texts

Jose Mencio Molintas

This article documents and reviews customary practices and land concepts in the Philippines and examines the interface between state laws and customary laws within the context of the conflicts over indigenous peoples’ lands. The article employs case studies to discuss the application of state laws to indigenous peoples’ communities. It examines the interaction of the formal legal system with the customs and traditions the indigenous peoples have historically relied upon to dictate the rules regulating the use and alienability of land. Particular attention is devoted to the Cordillera experience in order to illustrate how community-level efforts to defend indigenous territories can operate either as a mechanism for reform within the state’s existing formal legal framework or as a means of challenging current legal texts and principles at their foundation.

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Molintas, Jose Mencio. “Philippine Indigenous People’s Struggles for Land and Life: Challenging Legal Texts,” Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law 21, no. 1 (2004).

Marcos Pa Rin! Ang Mga Pamana at Sumpa ng Rehimeng Marcos

Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies (Various Authors)

2012-2013

Marcos Pa Rin! Ang Mga Pamana at Sumpa ng Rehimeng Marcos

Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies (Various Authors)

This volume contains annotated proceedings of the Marcos Pa Rin! public forum series organized by the Third World Studies Center at the University of the Philippines Diliman. The proceedings contain very specific information that deals with Martial Law-related events, both in the past and in the present. These include the controversial renaming of the College of Business Administration to Virata School of Business, Marcos-era human rights violations, Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos’ involvement in his father’s regime, Ferdinand E. Marcos’ abuse of legislative powers, and several myths about the Martial Law years.

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Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies vol. 27-28 nos. 1-2 (2012-2013): Marcos Pa Rin! Ang Mga Pamana at Sumpa ng Rehimeng Marcos.

The Marcos Rule and its Dynamics of Political Control

Carmencita T. Aguilar

1988

The Marcos Rule and its Dynamics of Political Control

Carmencita T. Aguilar

This paper examines how President Marcos was able to assert authoritarian rule by his ingenious subversion of the Philippine Constitution. It looks at how individual rights protected by the Constitution were subverted by Marcos’s manipulation of authority with support from institutions such as the business and military sectors.

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Aguilar, Carmencita T. “The Marcos Rule and its Dynamics of Political Control.” Indian Journal of Asian Affairs 1, no. 2 (1988): 43–57.

Claiming History: Memoirs of the Struggle against Ferdinand Marcos’s Martial Law Regime in the Philippines

Portia L. Reyes

2018

Claiming History: Memoirs of the Struggle against Ferdinand Marcos’s Martial Law Regime in the Philippines

Portia L. Reyes

In this article, Portia Reyes reviews important published memoirs on the Martial Law period to illustrate how they collectively embodied a counter-hegemonic account through alternative subjectivities and individual voices.

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Reyes, Portia L. “Claiming History: Memoirs of the Struggle against Ferdinand Marcos’s Martial Law Regime in the Philippines.” Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 33, no. 2 (2018): 457–98.