Secondary Resources

Secondary Resources

Secondary sources are books and materials that offer analysis and synthesis of historical events, often through the interpretation of primary sources. Secondary sources are usually products of research using a variety of sources by scholars and researchers, and in particular, by those who have published about the Martial Law period, its significance and legacy in the Philippines.

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Secondary Sources
Secondary Sources

Marcos Martial Law: Never Again

Raissa Robles

2016

Marcos Martial Law: Never Again

Raissa Robles

Marcos Martial Law: Never Again is a book by Raissa Robles, a veteran journalist, who comprehensively details the culture of corruption, impunity, and brutality of President Ferdinand E. Marcos’ dictatorship. Robles’ work can be appreciated as a history of torture in the Philippines, with particular focus on the apparent and “deliberate policy” of torture implemented by the Marcos regime. Moreover, Robles paints a vivid picture of torture by citing the actual experiences of Martial Law survivors who endured various torture methods employed by the military.

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Robles, Raissa. Marcos Martial Law: Never Again. Filipinos for a Better Philippines, Inc, 2016.

Philippine Politics and the Marcos Technocrats: The Emergence and Evolution of a Power Elite

Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

2019

Philippine Politics and the Marcos Technocrats: The Emergence and Evolution of a Power Elite

Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

Teresa Tadem’s book historicizes the rise of technocrats in President Ferdinand E. Marcos’ government during the pre-Martial Law years and their crucial roles in sustaining the regime during the Martial Law period. Tadem looks at the background of these technocrats and the conditions which made them prominent in their respective fields, thereby catapulting them into service under Marcos’ government. The book illustrates the dynamic relationship between technocracy and key government instrumentalities crucial for policy-making in the context of the Marcos regime.

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Tadem, Teresa S. Philippine Politics and the Marcos Technocrats: The Emergence and Evolution of a Power Elite. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2019. [With permission from author and publisher.]

Living and Dying: In Memory of 11 Ateneo de Manila Martial Law Activists

Cristina Jayme Montiel

2007

Living and Dying: In Memory of 11 Ateneo de Manila Martial Law Activists

Cristina Jayme Montiel

Living and Dying: In Memory of 11 Ateneo de Manila Martial Law Activists is a book that narrates the lived experiences of 11 young Ateneans namely, Ferdie Arceo, Bill Begg, Jun Celestial, Sonny Hizon, Edjop Jopson, Eman Lacaba, Dante Perez, Ditto Sarmiento, Lazzie Silva, Nick Solana, and Manny Yap, in the context of the Martial Law years. The book serves as a memorial for these young activists, emphasizing their deeds and sacrifices in the struggle against the dictatorship.

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Montiel, Cristina Jayme. Living and Dying: In Memory of 11 Ateneo de Manila Martial Law Activists. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2007.

Some Are Smarter than Others: The History of Marcos’ Crony Capitalism

Ricardo Manapat

2020

Some Are Smarter than Others: The History of Marcos’ Crony Capitalism

Ricardo Manapat

Ricardo Manapat narrates in full detail the “infrastructure of plunder” that institutionalized cronyism and kleptocracy in Ferdinand E. Marcos’ government. Manapat’s research exposes how the state weaponized its political advantage in order to intervene in economic affairs which benefitted a select few within the dictator’s circle, at the expense of many Filipinos who toiled in poverty.

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Manapat, Ricardo. Some Are Smarter than Others: The History of Marcos’ Crony Capitalism. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2020.

Politics of Plunder: The Philippines Under Marcos

Belinda Aquino

1987

Politics of Plunder: The Philippines Under Marcos

Belinda Aquino

Dr. Belinda Aquino, Professor Emeritus of Political Science and founding director of the Center for Philippine Studies at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa looks into the political dynamics of plunder allegedly by Marcos and his cronies under a 20-year-old regime. This study uses the controversial Marcos papers and other incriminating materials retrieved from the plane that carried Marcos and his family to exile in Hawaii. The book explains how and why plunder in the Marcos period broke up former notions of corruption, and how it is set to change the way Filipinos look at corruption in the years ahead.

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Aquino, Belinda. Politics of Plunder: The Philippines Under Marcos. Quezon City, 1987.

The Tacbil Mosque Palimbang Massacre: A Reader

Commission on Human Rights

2022

The Tacbil Mosque Palimbang Massacre: A Reader

Commission on Human Rights

This book provides a collection of sources pertaining to the mass murder of Filipino Muslims within the coastal village of Malisbong in Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat, Mindanao. On September 1974, during the Islamic Period of Fasting, Philippine Military and Paramilitary forces (including the infamous Christian ilagâ group) attacked a series of coastal villages in Palimbang, detaining a large section of the local male population in the Malisbong Mosque and systematically executing captives over several days. The incident was reported to have caused the deaths of over 1,500 men, with countless women raped on naval barges and elsewhere, and homes looted before being razed to the ground. Featuring declassified government communications, journalistic accounts and survivor testimonies, this reader will be invaluable to those interested in studying the comparative impact of Martial Law on Muslim Mindanao.

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Human Rights Violations Victims’ Memorial Commission and Commission on Human Rights. The Tacbil Mosque Palimbang Massacre: A Reader (2nd ed). Manila, 2022.

The Marcos Years: The Age of Crisis and Repression

Ferdinand C. Llanes (ed.)

2023

The Marcos Years: The Age of Crisis and Repression

Ferdinand C. Llanes (ed.)

The Marcos Years: The Age of Crisis and Repression is a collection of essays organized in two parts: (1) an examination into the full weight of Martial Law on politics and society and (2) an analysis of the economic crisis which the dictatorship period produced. The first part probes into the nature of authoritarianism, the traits of the bureaucracy under Martial Law, and the experiences of those who resisted, particularly journalists and activists. The second part studies the different programs and policies of Ferdinand E. Marcos that brought the Philippine economy to its dire state in the 1980s.

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Llanes, Ferdinand C. (ed.). The Marcos Years: The Age of Crisis and Repression. N.p.: Sandigan para sa Mag-aaral at Sambayanan (SAMASA), 2023.

The Marcos Era: A Reader

Leia Castañeda Anastacio and Patricio N. Abinales (eds.)

2022

The Marcos Era: A Reader

Leia Castañeda Anastacio and Patricio N. Abinales (eds.)

The Marcos Era: A Reader is an appraisal of various aspects of Ferdinand E. Marcos’ regime–its key personalities, policies, and programs. Written by historians, political scientists, social scientists, economists, lawyers, journalists, and other members of the civil society, the Martial Law reader aims to contribute to ongoing academic conversation about the Marcos regime that lasted for more than two decades and shaped Philippine contemporary history.

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Anastacio, Leia Castañeda and Patricio N. Abinales (eds.). The Marcos Era: A Reader. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2022.

The Counterfeit Revolution: The Philippines from Martial Law to the Aquino Assassination

Reuben R. Canoy

1980

The Counterfeit Revolution: The Philippines from Martial Law to the Aquino Assassination

Reuben R. Canoy

As the title suggests, what Reuben Canoy does in this book is to expose the reality behind the myth of the “new society” and the “democratic revolution” that President Marcos declared he was bringing with Martial Law. As he states, this book was written to “keep that reality in sight, by probing into the circumstances and the possible reasons behind the declaration of Martial Law.” The value of this book is even more plain given the fact that it was published in 1980 while Marcos was still in power, and thus, the author necessarily had to be careful with his sources and discrete with his informants. An important book from the period.

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Canoy, Reuben R. The Counterfeit Revolution: The Uncensored Story of the Marcos Regime in the Philippines, Manila, Philippines: Philippine Editions Pub, 1980.

Marcos and Beyond: The Philippine Revolution

John Lyons and Karl Wilson (eds.)

1987

Marcos and Beyond: The Philippine Revolution

John Lyons and Karl Wilson (eds.)

In this study, John Lyons and Karl Wilson revisit the dramatic events that led to the People Power Edsa ‘revolution.’ They particularly examined the role of the United States and their reactions to the events as they unfolded in the Philippines. From these events, they looked at the legacy of Marcos and his family as they left the Philippines.

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Lyons, John., Karl. Wilson, and Will. Burgess. Marcos and Beyond : the Philippines Revolution. Kenthurst: Kangaroo Press, 1987.

Edifice Complex: Power, Myth and Marcos State Architecture

Gerard Lico

2003

Edifice Complex: Power, Myth and Marcos State Architecture

Gerard Lico

Gerard Lico provides an analysis of power and architectural commentary/criticism of the massive infrastructure projects of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, particularly the Cultural Center of the Philippines complex. Lico delves into the idea that architectural projects were used by the Marcos dictatorship in order to legitimize authoritarianism and maintain social control. By looking at Marcosian architecture, the author interrogates Marcos’ idea of the New Society through his ambitious projects that attempt to propel an illusion of “progress” under the context of the dictatorship.

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Lico, Gerard. Edifice Complex: Power, Myth and Marcos State Architecture. Ateneo University Press, 2003.

An Analysis of the Philippine Economic Crisis

Emmanuel De Dios (ed.)

1986

An Analysis of the Philippine Economic Crisis

Emmanuel De Dios (ed.)

Papers on the state of the Philippine economy under Marcos by some of the most important political economists in the country. Their report embodies the results of a series of workshops on the economic crisis under Martial Law, held between November 1983 and May 1984, in which interested faculty members of the University of the Philippines School of Economics participated. Topics ranged from fiscal policy to unemployment as well as recommendations for solving the crisis.

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De Dios, Emmanuel S. (ed.). An Analysis of the Philippine Economic Crisis. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1986.