Secondary Resources

Secondary Resources

Secondary sources are books and materials that offer analysis and synthesis of historical events, often through the interpretation of primary sources. Secondary sources are usually products of research using a variety of sources by scholars and researchers, and in particular, by those who have published about the Martial Law period, its significance and legacy in the Philippines.

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Secondary Sources
Secondary Sources

The State in Development Theory: The Philippines Under Marcos

M. D. Litonjua

2001

The State in Development Theory: The Philippines Under Marcos

M. D. Litonjua

This article uses a comparative institutional approach to study the role of the state in the Philippines under Marcos. It looks at the different states in Philippine history and how it compares to the state model of Martial law in order to understand the prospects of democracy and development in the country.

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Litonjua, M. D. “The State in Development Theory: The Philippines Under Marcos.” Philippine Studies 49, no. 3 (2001): 368–98.

The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos

William H. Overholt

1986

The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos

William H. Overholt

In this article written soon after the People Power revolt, political economist William Overholt comprehensively analyzes the conditions that led to rise of Marcos, Martial Law and the eventual decline of his regime, focusing primarily on economic reforms and its effects on political stability.

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Overholt, William H. “The Rise and Fall of Ferdinand Marcos.” Asian Survey 26, no. 11 (1986): 1137–63. https://doi.org/10.2307/2644313.

Marcos and the Americans

Richard J. Kessler

1986

Marcos and the Americans

Richard J. Kessler

This article examines various U.S. policies and administrations with regards to President Marcos and his regime. It interrogates whether these administrations were misguided and have contributed substantially to the economic and political problems in the Philippines.

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Kessler, Richard J. “Marcos and the Americans.” Foreign Policy, no. 63 (1986): 40–57. https://doi.org/10.2307/1148755.

United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures that made for Change

Gary Hawes

1986

United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures that made for Change

Gary Hawes

This article by U.S. Foreign Relations expert, Gary Hawkes, interrogates the so-called American dilemma. How and why to support Marcos in the midst of mounting economic and political pressures? Gawes looks at important issues such as military aid and bases, the economy and opposition to Marcos.

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Hawes, Gary. “United States Support for the Marcos Administration and the Pressures That Made for Change.” Contemporary Southeast Asia 8, no. 1 (1986): 18–36.

Marcos Martial Law: Never Again

Raissa Robles

2016

Marcos Martial Law: Never Again

Raissa Robles

Marcos Martial Law: Never Again is a book by Raissa Robles, a veteran journalist, who comprehensively details the culture of corruption, impunity, and brutality of President Ferdinand E. Marcos’ dictatorship. Robles’ work can be appreciated as a history of torture in the Philippines, with particular focus on the apparent and “deliberate policy” of torture implemented by the Marcos regime. Moreover, Robles paints a vivid picture of torture by citing the actual experiences of Martial Law survivors who endured various torture methods employed by the military.

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Robles, Raissa. Marcos Martial Law: Never Again. Filipinos for a Better Philippines, Inc, 2016.

Philippine Politics and the Marcos Technocrats: The Emergence and Evolution of a Power Elite

Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

2019

Philippine Politics and the Marcos Technocrats: The Emergence and Evolution of a Power Elite

Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

Teresa Tadem’s book historicizes the rise of technocrats in President Ferdinand E. Marcos’ government during the pre-Martial Law years and their crucial roles in sustaining the regime during the Martial Law period. Tadem looks at the background of these technocrats and the conditions which made them prominent in their respective fields, thereby catapulting them into service under Marcos’ government. The book illustrates the dynamic relationship between technocracy and key government instrumentalities crucial for policy-making in the context of the Marcos regime.

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Tadem, Teresa S. Philippine Politics and the Marcos Technocrats: The Emergence and Evolution of a Power Elite. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2019. [With permission from author and publisher.]

Living and Dying: In Memory of 11 Ateneo de Manila Martial Law Activists

Cristina Jayme Montiel

2007

Living and Dying: In Memory of 11 Ateneo de Manila Martial Law Activists

Cristina Jayme Montiel

Living and Dying: In Memory of 11 Ateneo de Manila Martial Law Activists is a book that narrates the lived experiences of 11 young Ateneans namely, Ferdie Arceo, Bill Begg, Jun Celestial, Sonny Hizon, Edjop Jopson, Eman Lacaba, Dante Perez, Ditto Sarmiento, Lazzie Silva, Nick Solana, and Manny Yap, in the context of the Martial Law years. The book serves as a memorial for these young activists, emphasizing their deeds and sacrifices in the struggle against the dictatorship.

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Montiel, Cristina Jayme. Living and Dying: In Memory of 11 Ateneo de Manila Martial Law Activists. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2007.

Presidential Plunder: The Quest for the Marcos Ill-Gotten Wealth

Jovito R. Salonga

2000

Presidential Plunder: The Quest for the Marcos Ill-Gotten Wealth

Jovito R. Salonga

The definitive book on the monumental Marcos plunder written with great authority and expertise by Jovito R. Salonga, someone who came close to the issue as the first Philippine Commission on Good Government Chairman; an outstanding example of politically engaged scholarship coupled with the legal sharpness that Salonga is known for.

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Salonga, Jovita R., Presidential Plunder: The Quest for the Marcos Ill-Gotten Wealth, Quezon City: CLCD, Regina Publishing, 2000.

Some Are Smarter than Others: The History of Marcos’ Crony Capitalism

Ricardo Manapat

2020

Some Are Smarter than Others: The History of Marcos’ Crony Capitalism

Ricardo Manapat

Ricardo Manapat narrates in full detail the “infrastructure of plunder” that institutionalized cronyism and kleptocracy in Ferdinand E. Marcos’ government. Manapat’s research exposes how the state weaponized its political advantage in order to intervene in economic affairs which benefitted a select few within the dictator’s circle, at the expense of many Filipinos who toiled in poverty.

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Manapat, Ricardo. Some Are Smarter than Others: The History of Marcos’ Crony Capitalism. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2020.

Politics of Plunder: The Philippines Under Marcos

Belinda Aquino

1987

Politics of Plunder: The Philippines Under Marcos

Belinda Aquino

Dr. Belinda Aquino, Professor Emeritus of Political Science and founding director of the Center for Philippine Studies at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa looks into the political dynamics of plunder allegedly by Marcos and his cronies under a 20-year-old regime. This study uses the controversial Marcos papers and other incriminating materials retrieved from the plane that carried Marcos and his family to exile in Hawaii. The book explains how and why plunder in the Marcos period broke up former notions of corruption, and how it is set to change the way Filipinos look at corruption in the years ahead.

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Aquino, Belinda. Politics of Plunder: The Philippines Under Marcos. Quezon City, 1987.

The Tacbil Mosque Palimbang Massacre: A Reader

Commission on Human Rights

2022

The Tacbil Mosque Palimbang Massacre: A Reader

Commission on Human Rights

This book provides a collection of sources pertaining to the mass murder of Filipino Muslims within the coastal village of Malisbong in Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat, Mindanao. On September 1974, during the Islamic Period of Fasting, Philippine Military and Paramilitary forces (including the infamous Christian ilagâ group) attacked a series of coastal villages in Palimbang, detaining a large section of the local male population in the Malisbong Mosque and systematically executing captives over several days. The incident was reported to have caused the deaths of over 1,500 men, with countless women raped on naval barges and elsewhere, and homes looted before being razed to the ground. Featuring declassified government communications, journalistic accounts and survivor testimonies, this reader will be invaluable to those interested in studying the comparative impact of Martial Law on Muslim Mindanao.

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Human Rights Violations Victims’ Memorial Commission and Commission on Human Rights. The Tacbil Mosque Palimbang Massacre: A Reader (2nd ed). Manila, 2022.

Narrating the Dictator(ship): Social Memory, Marcos, and Ilokano Literature after the 1986 Revolution

Roderick Galam

2008

Narrating the Dictator(ship): Social Memory, Marcos, and Ilokano Literature after the 1986 Revolution

Roderick Galam

This article inquires into the social memory of Ferdinand Marcos and of his dictatorship in the literature written in the language of his home region, Ilocos, in the period since his downfall during the 1986 People Power Revolution. The novels Saksi ti Kaunggan (1986-1987) by Juan S. P. Hidalgo Jr. and Dagiti Bin-i ti Kimat (1995) by Clesencio B. Rambaud are used as indicators of changing narrative social memories of Marcos in Ilokano literature. Hidalgo’s novel exemplifies the Ilokano writers’ ‘loyalist’ memory of Marcos, whereas Rambaud’s novel indexes attempts to reassess Marcos and the legacies of his dictatorship. This article seeks to contribute to the literature on the social memory of Marcos’s military regime; looks into the braiding of literature, memory, and the nation; and examines the constitution of memory in gender.–Galam

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Galam, Roderick, Narrating the Dictator(ship): Social Memory, Marcos, and Ilokano Literature after the 1986 Revolution, Philippine Studies vol. 56, no. 2 (2008): 151–182.