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Letter of Instruction No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

Letter of Instruction No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Along with Proclamation 1081, President Marcos, signed “Letter of Instruction No. 1″ addressed to the Press Secretary and the Secretary of National Defense, pertaining to media operations. Effectively, the President instructed these bodies, stating…”you are hereby ordered forthwith to take over and control or cause the taking over and control of all such newspapers, magazines, radio and television facilities and all other media of communications, wherever they are, for the duration of the present national emergency, or until otherwise ordered by me or my duly designated representative.”

After declaring Martial Law, the very first letter of instruction President Marcos signed institutionalized censorship of all forms of media, curtailing the freedom of the press.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “Letter of Instruction No. 1,” Official Gazette, Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

The Radio-TV Address of President Marcos

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

The Radio-TV Address of President Marcos

Ferdinand E. Marcos

On September 23, 1972, two days after he signed Proclamation 1081 imposing Martial Law on the entire country, President Marcos addressed the people of the Philippines on radio and television. On this Radio-TV address, he provided the rationale of military rule as “public safety requires it” and as the nation was “imperilled by the danger of violent overthrow, an insurrection or a rebellion.” In his address, he emphasized that “this is not a military takeover,” and yet, he orders the military to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, prohibit any rallies or demonstrations, and to arrest those “directly involved in the conspiracy to overthrow” the government. Curfew was imposed from 12am to 4am the departure of Filipinos to go abroad was suspended. Furthermore, President Marcos declared that “If you offend the New Society, you shall be punished like the rest of the offenders,” and yet reassured the Filipinos expressing, “but to the ordinary citizens, to almost all of you whose primary concern is merely to be left alone to pursue your lawful activities, this is the guarantee of that freedom that you seek.” This address did not provide much reassurance but was foreboding of the bad things to come.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E. Radio-TV Address of his Excellency Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines, Delivered in Malacanang, September 23, 1972.
Marcos, F. E. (1978). Presidential speeches (Vol. 4). [Manila : Office of the President of the Philippines].

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Philippines

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

1985

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Philippines

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

This report was commissioned by the US Committee on Foreign Relations in 1985 as a supplementary document to their initial report entitled “The Situation in the Philippines.” It was based on a three-week field research conducted mostly in Negros Island and Mindanao. Through a series of interviews with government officials, military commanders, and civilians, this document provides a crucial assessment of the counterinsurgency campaign in the Philippines.

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U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Philippines. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.

Martial Law Human Rights Violations Victims recognized under Republic Act 10368 – Motu Propio List

Human Rights Victims' Claims Board

2018

Martial Law Human Rights Violations Victims recognized under Republic Act 10368 – Motu Propio List

Human Rights Victims' Claims Board

The Human Rights Victims Reparation and Recognition Act of 2013 was passed into law to determine a list of victims of the former Marcos Administration from 21 September 1972 to 25 February 1986. On May 11, 2018, the Human Rights Victims’ Claims Board (HRVCB) released Resolution No. 18-2018, which gave recognition to 126 motu proprio victims of Martial Law. The Board was given the power to recognize these victims motu proprio based on Sections 18 and 26 of R.A. 10368, as well as Section 20 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R.A. 10368.

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Republic of the Philippines Commission on Human Rights. 2018. Resolution No. 18-2018: Motu Propio Recognition of Human Rights Violations Victims Pursuant to R.A. 10368. Prepared by the Human Rights Victims’ Claims Board, Commission on Human Rights. Quezon City.

General Order No. 6

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 6

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Upon the declaration of Martial Law, and with the rationale to stop “terroristic activities, assassination of innocent citizens and leaders” by “radical and lawless elements,” President Marcos signed General Order No. 6 that prohibits any person to “keep, possess or carry outside of his residence any firearm unless authorized.” Any person violating this order shall forthwith be arrested and taken into custody.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 6,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

General Order No. 5

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 5

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Upon the declaration of Martial Law, and with the rationale to “restore the tranquility and stability of the nation in the quickest possible manner,” President Marcos signed General Order No. 5, effectively banning “all rallies, demonstrations and other forms of group actions.” Furthermore, strikes and picketing by workers of companies engaged in the production of essential commodities, as well as those in hospitals, schools and colleges, are strictly prohibited. This declaration also stated that any person violating this order shall be arrested and taken into custody and held for the duration of the “national emergency .”

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 5,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

General Order No. 4

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 4

Ferdinand E. Marcos

In accordance with his declaration of Martial Law, President Marcos signed General Order No. 4, imposing nightly curfew for all Filipinos from 12am to 4am with the justification of preventing “wanton destruction of lives and property, widespread lawlessness and anarchy, and chaos and disorder.” People who are found outside their homes after curfew will be summarily arrested with possible detention in military camps. This curfew would not be lifted until August 1977, almost five years later.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 4,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

General Order No. 3

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 3

Ferdinand E. Marcos

With the declaration of Martial Law, President Marcos signed several General (Executive) Orders immediately, including General Order No. 3, where he orders that “all executive departments, bureaus, offices, agencies and instrumentalities of the National Government…shall continue to function under their present officers and employees.” The same goes to the Judiciary which he stated “shall continue to function in accordance with its present organization and personnel,” except in adjudicating the cases of those deemed dangerous by the state. Like other general orders, this one cements and expands the uncontested powers of the President.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 3,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

General Order No. 2-A

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 2-A

Ferdinand E. Marcos

With Proclamation 1081, President Marcos effectively placed the country under Martial Law and immediately after he signed several General Orders that elaborated on and expanded his powers. With General Order No. 2-A (which amended General Order No. 2), President Marcos, as Commander-in-Chief, orders the Secretary of National Defense to arrest and take into custody the individuals who were seen as threats to the state. The order itself lists these types of people. This effectively gave the President and the military unlimited power to arrest people without due process.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 2-A,” Government of the Philippines, September 26, 1972. [Amending General Order No. 2 signed on September 22, 1972.]

General Order No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

General Order No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

With Proclamation 1081, President Marcos effectively placed the country under Martial Law and immediately after, he signed several General Orders that elaborated on and expanded his powers. General Order No. 1 cemented his authoritarian powers, as he declared: “I shall govern the nation and, direct the operation of the entire Government, including all its agencies and instrumentalities, in my capacity and shall exercise all the powers and prerogatives appurtenant and incident to my position as such Commander-in-Chief of all the armed forces of the Philippines.”

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “General Order No. 1,” Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

Proclamation No. 1081

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

Proclamation No. 1081

Ferdinand E. Marcos

A most important and historic document, Proclamation No. 1081, contained the formal proclamation of Martial Law in the Philippines by President Ferdinand Marcos. It was signed on September 23, 1972, then back dated to September 21, 1972, but only announced to the public on September 23, 1972. The document outlines the rationale for the declaration of Martial Law, stating that “there is throughout the land a state of anarchy and lawlessness, chaos and disorder, turmoil and destruction of a magnitude equivalent to an actual war.”

This proclamation marked the beginning of the authoritarian rule of President Marcos, which lasted for 14 years. Marcos assumed powers essentially as a dictator as he declared, “in my capacity as their commander-in-chief, do hereby command the armed forces of the Philippines, to maintain law and order throughout the Philippines, prevent or suppress all forms of lawless violence as well as any act of insurrection or rebellion and to enforce obedience to all the laws and decrees, orders and regulations promulgated by me personally or upon my direction.”

With Proclamation No. 1081, President Marcos then signed several General Orders and Letters of Instruction that cemented his authoritarian powers, which included arresting persons without due process, suspending the writ of habeas corpus, curtailing the freedom of the press, prohibiting strikes and mass actions, among others. This proclamation also stopped the democratic process allowing him to rule the Philippines, essentially without legitimate Elections and opposition, until his ouster in 1986.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “Proclamation 1081,” Official Gazette, Government of the Philippines, September 21, 1972.

The Situation in the Philippines [1984]

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

1984

The Situation in the Philippines [1984]

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

This comprehensive report was based on two visits of several members of the US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations between May and July of 1984 in order to assess the situation in the Philippines. Key observations were made particularly on the conduct of the elections for the National Assembly, the current political climate, the ongoing insurgency, and the assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr.

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U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Staff. The Situation in the Philippines. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984.