Primary Resources

Primary Resources

Primary sources are considered raw data as they provide raw information and first-hand accounts of historical events, usually written or produced by people from the time period who had direct experience or connection to these events. These sources become building blocks for a much more analytical interpretation of historical events, and in particular, those surrounding the periods before, during and after the declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines.

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Primary Sources
Primary Sources

Philippines Information Bulletin

Various Authors

1973

Philippines Information Bulletin

Various Authors

The inaugural issue of the Philippines Information Bulletin. Started in 1973 by U.S.-based allies of the anti-Marcos movement, the Bulletin was in operation until 1976. The publication, which was eventually guided by the Friends of the Filipino People, kept people in the United States up to date on martial law developments in the Philippines as well as the role that the United States played in supporting the Marcos presidency.

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Philippines Information Bulletin 1, no. 1 (January 1973).

Radio Broadcast of the Philippine People Power Revolution

Radio Veritas, DZRJ/DZRB, Radio Bandido, DZRH

2003

Radio Broadcast of the Philippine People Power Revolution

Radio Veritas, DZRJ/DZRB, Radio Bandido, DZRH

The collection of sound recordings of 44 audiocassette tapes and 1 mini-disc document the actual, unedited day-to-day radio broadcast of Radio Veritas, (a Catholic–owned radio station at the outskirts of Manila), DZRJ/DZRB, Radio Bandido, (a privately-owned radio station in Quezon City, then under the Ministry of National Defense), DZRH (a privately-owned radio station in Manila) and Voice of the Philippines (a government-owned radio station taken over by the people led by Radio Veritas on the 24th of February, 1986). The unbroken radio record over four days in 1986 is an unvarnished chronicle of a nation and its people at a crucial time in its history.

The collection was inscribed in UNESCO’s Memory of the World programme in 2003.

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UNESCO Memory of the World. Radio Broadcast of the Philippine People Power Revolution. 2003.

Mr. and Ms. Special Edition: The Aquino Funeral, September 2, 1983

Various authors

1983

Mr. and Ms. Special Edition: The Aquino Funeral, September 2, 1983

Various authors

This Special Edition of Mr. and Ms. magazine shows the bloodied body of Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr. who was murdered in August 21, 1983. The issue also contains pictures of the thousands of people who attended his public funeral. Magazines such as this one were instrumental in exposing the excesses of the regime of President Marcos. The funeral was seen as the beginning of the end of his regime.

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The Aquino Funeral (Special Edition), Mr.&Ms. magazine, September 2, 1983.

Letter of Instruction No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

Letter of Instruction No. 1

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Along with Proclamation 1081, President Marcos, signed “Letter of Instruction No. 1″ addressed to the Press Secretary and the Secretary of National Defense, pertaining to media operations. Effectively, the President instructed these bodies, stating…”you are hereby ordered forthwith to take over and control or cause the taking over and control of all such newspapers, magazines, radio and television facilities and all other media of communications, wherever they are, for the duration of the present national emergency, or until otherwise ordered by me or my duly designated representative.”

After declaring Martial Law, the very first letter of instruction President Marcos signed institutionalized censorship of all forms of media, curtailing the freedom of the press.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E., “Letter of Instruction No. 1,” Official Gazette, Government of the Philippines, September 22, 1972.

The Philippine Press Under Siege, Volumes 1 and 2

National Press Club of the Philippines and the Committee to Protect Writers

1984

The Philippine Press Under Siege, Volumes 1 and 2

National Press Club of the Philippines and the Committee to Protect Writers

This two volume anthology contains newspaper articles by prominent journalists who wrote courageously about the authoritarian regime of President Marcos while he was still in power. It is the first time these articles have been gathered together in a book. As the foreword states, these articles “show the kind of ‘dangerous writing’ that has brought about the forced resignation, firing, blacklisting, arrest or detention of journalists, the padlocking or sequestering of a newspaper’s printing plant and equipment, and the filing of multi-million peso libel suits or subversive charges against writers, editors and publishers.”

The second volume contains more articles to serve as a “graphic documentation of the blood-and-sand state of a profession under siege, underlying the personal struggles and heartbreaks of the men and women of the Philippine press who now work under the shadow of death itself.”

Aptly called “The Philippine Press Under Seige.” A truly valuable anthology.

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The Philippine Press Under Siege. Manila: National Press Club of the Philippines, 1984.

Malaya, September 1-4, 1983

Various authors.

1983

Malaya, September 1-4, 1983

Various authors.

This special issue by the liberal newspaper, Malaya, covers the funeral of Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr., which was attended by millions of Filipinos. The headline refers to this event “as a new chapter” in Philippines history. For many, this was the beginning of the end of the regime of President Marcos.

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“Millions pay last respects for Ninoy,” Malaya Newspaper, September 1-4, 1983.

Balita News, June 2, 1983.

Balita News Team

1983

Balita News, June 2, 1983.

Balita News Team

Retrieved from the online library of the Bantayog Foundation, this copy of the Balita News Tabloid, then owned by Marcos Crony Hanz Menzi, offers perspective on the selection and positioning of media news connected with the Administration. The issue features an article titled “Canadian priest is Harassed by gov’t” referring to the harassment of the clergy in Mindanao – including Canadian Father Pat Kelly and German Nationals arrested with Karl Gaspar. Another article later in the paper also speculates on whether Former Senator Benigno Aquino would be returning in time for the 1984 Parliamentary elections.

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Balita News Tabloid. Vol. 5. No. 18. 2 June 1983.

Days of Disquiet, Nights of Rage: The First Quarter Storm and Other Related Events

Jose Lacaba

1986

Days of Disquiet, Nights of Rage: The First Quarter Storm and Other Related Events

Jose Lacaba

A compilation of gripping on-the-spot reports on the First Quarter Storm first published in the Philippine Free Press and the Asia-Philippines Leader, Days of Disquiet, Nights of Rage was a pioneering example of the New Journalism emerging in the country in the 1970s. “Of our journalists, one of the most able in the new style is Jose F. Lacaba. As TV and newsreel do, he puts you right on the scene… [H]e communicates the emotion, even the meaning of what’s happening without having to spell it out.” – Quijano de Manila

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Lacaba, Jose. Days of Disquiet, Nights of Rage: The First Quarter Storm and Other Related Events. Asphodel Books, 1986.

Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 26, 1986

Various authors

1986

Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 26, 1986

Various authors

This cover story that declares “It’s all over; Marcos flees!” has become one of the most popular covers in Philippine newspaper history. Most articles in this issue discuss the end of the regime of President Marcos as he and his family fled the Philippines after a peaceful People Power revolution. The cover shows a photo of Corazon Aquino taking her oath as the new President of the Philippines.

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Luis Beltran, “It’s all over, Marcos flees!” Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 26, 1986.

The Unbroken Thread of Genocide in the Bangsamoro Homeland

Nur Misuari/Moro National Liberation Front

1989

The Unbroken Thread of Genocide in the Bangsamoro Homeland

Nur Misuari/Moro National Liberation Front

The Moro National Liberation Front released a pamphlet in 1989 enumerating a large number of killing incidents in Mindanao. Arguing that the violence and killings committed under the Marcos Regime were still being conducted by the Philippine Military after the EDSA Revolution, Nur Misuari is attributed in the document as calling for the MNLF’s acceptance into the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) to provide greater support and security from the Bangsamoro Community. The file includes graphic images of the bodies of victims and ruined mosques.

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Misuari, Nur. “The Unbroken Thread of Genocide in the Bangsamoro Homeland.” Mahardika Press – Moro National Liberation Front (February 1989).

The Philippines Sunday Express, September 24, 1972

Various Authors

1972

The Philippines Sunday Express, September 24, 1972

Various Authors

The cover page of the Philippines Sunday Express dated September 24, 1972 shows President Marcos declaring Martial Law just the day before. Accompanying articles explain that this declaration was not a military take-over and that life and business would go on as normal. And yet, the newspaper cover alone elicits a sense of foreboding of what is to come.

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“FM Declares Martial Law,” The Philippines Sunday Express, September 24, 1972.

The Radio-TV Address of President Marcos

Ferdinand E. Marcos

1972

The Radio-TV Address of President Marcos

Ferdinand E. Marcos

On September 23, 1972, two days after he signed Proclamation 1081 imposing Martial Law on the entire country, President Marcos addressed the people of the Philippines on radio and television. On this Radio-TV address, he provided the rationale of military rule as “public safety requires it” and as the nation was “imperilled by the danger of violent overthrow, an insurrection or a rebellion.” In his address, he emphasized that “this is not a military takeover,” and yet, he orders the military to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, prohibit any rallies or demonstrations, and to arrest those “directly involved in the conspiracy to overthrow” the government. Curfew was imposed from 12am to 4am the departure of Filipinos to go abroad was suspended. Furthermore, President Marcos declared that “If you offend the New Society, you shall be punished like the rest of the offenders,” and yet reassured the Filipinos expressing, “but to the ordinary citizens, to almost all of you whose primary concern is merely to be left alone to pursue your lawful activities, this is the guarantee of that freedom that you seek.” This address did not provide much reassurance but was foreboding of the bad things to come.

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Marcos, Ferdinand E. Radio-TV Address of his Excellency Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines, Delivered in Malacanang, September 23, 1972.
Marcos, F. E. (1978). Presidential speeches (Vol. 4). [Manila : Office of the President of the Philippines].